Publication


A. T. Brown, et al.
Global stratospheric chlorine inventories for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, 13, 23491-23548, 2013; doi: 10.5194/acpd-13-23491-2013
HCl CCl3F CCl2F2 ClONO2 COClF CH3Cl CCl4 COCl2
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Abstract


We present chlorine budgets calculated between 2004 and 2009 for four latitude bands (70° N–30° N, 30° N–0° N, 0° N–30° S, and 30° S–70° S). The budgets were calculated using ACE-FTS version 3.0 retrievals of the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of 9 chlorine-containing species: CCl4, CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-11 (CCl3F), COCl2, COClF, HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl), CH3Cl, HCl and ClONO2. These data were supplemented with calculated VMRs from the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model (CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, ClO and HOCl). The total chlorine profiles are dominated by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons up to 24 km in the tropics and 19 km in the extra-tropics. In this altitude range CFCs and halons account for 58% of the total chlorine VMR. Above this altitude HCl increasingly dominates the total chlorine profile, reaching a maximum of 95% of total chlorine at 54 km. All total chlorine profiles exhibit a positive slope with altitude, suggesting that the total chlorine VMR is now decreasing with time. This conclusion is supported by the time series of the mean stratospheric total chlorine budgets which show mean decreases in total stratospheric chlorine of 0.38 ± 0.03% per year in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, 0.35 ± 0.07% per year in the Northern Hemisphere tropical stratosphere, 0.54 ± 0.16% per year in the Southern Hemisphere tropics and 0.53 ± 0.12% per year in the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical stratosphere for 2004–2009. Globally stratospheric chlorine is decreasing by 0.46 ± 0.02% per year. Both global warming potential-weighted chlorine and ozone depletion potential-weighted chlorine are decreasing at all latitudes. These results show that the Montreal Protocol has had a significant effect in reducing emissions of both ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

Reference


@article{acpd-13-23491-2013,
  author = "A. T. Brown and M. P. Chipperfield and S. Dhomse and C. Boone and P. F. Bernath",
  title = "Global stratospheric chlorine inventories for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements",
  year = 2013,
  journal = "Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions",
  volume = 13,
  pages = "23491-23548",
  month = "Sep",
  keywords = "HCl, CCl3F, CCl2F2, ClONO2, COClF, CH3Cl, CCl4, COCl2",
  doi = "10.5194/acpd-13-23491-2013",
  url = "https://www.atmos-chem-phys-discuss.net/13/23491/2013/"
}
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