P. Bernath, et al.
Trends in stratospheric HCl from the ACE satellite mission
Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, 217, 126-129, 2018; doi:,
Atmospheric chemistry experiment Fourier transform spectrometer Satellite mission Hydrochloric acid Montreal Protocol HCl trends


The Montreal Protocol has banned the production of long-lived chlorine-containing gases such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that deplete stratospheric ozone. These halogenated compounds ultimately form HCl in the upper atmosphere; the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol can therefore be monitored by measuring stratospheric HCl. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measures infrared solar occultation spectra of the Earth's atmosphere from which altitude profiles of HCl volume mixing ratios (VMRs) are determined. The upper stratospheric HCl VMR time series has a linear trend of −4.8 ± 0.2%/decade for 2004–2017, highlighting the continuing success of the Montreal Protocol.


  author = "P. Bernath and A. M. Fernando",
  title = "Trends in stratospheric HCl from the ACE satellite mission",
  year = 2018,
  journal = "Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer",
  volume = 217,
  pages = "126-129",
  month = "May",
  keywords = "Atmospheric chemistry experiment, Fourier transform spectrometer, Satellite mission, Hydrochloric acid, Montreal Protocol, HCl trends",
  doi = "",
  url = ""
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